General Education Conference 2017: Evolution and Transformation - Concurrent Sessions

The Study of Learning Outcomes, Responsibility and Satisfaction of Students Using the “Flipped Classroom” in the Subject of Innovation and Scientific Thinking

Nalin-on Nuiplot
Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University

The research entitled “The Study of Learning Achievement, Responsibility and Satisfaction of Students Using the Flipped Classroom in the Subject of Innovation and Scientific Thinking” was aimed 1) to compare learning outcomes between the pre-test and post-test which were in the title of “Scientific Method”, 2) to assess the responsibility in learning by “Project Evaluation” form, and 3) to assess the satisfaction of students to the Flipped Classroom as a learning management. The samples group was the 120 students enrolled in GE 103 Subject: Innovation and Scientific Thinking, General Education program, Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand in the second semester of academic year 2015 by purposively selected. The tools used in this research were : the pre-test and post-test which all were in the title of “Scientific Method”, the “Project Evaluation” form, and the online questionnaire which was in the title of “Satisfaction of Students to the Flipped Classroom”. The statistics used in this research was the Percentage, the Mean, the Standard Deviation and the t-test for dependent samples. It was found that 1) the students got higher learning outcomes in post-test than in pre-test entitled “Scientific Method” with the statistically significant at level .05, 2) the students could create a project based on their interest which then be evaluated their responsibility in learning according to criteria of 80 percent, and 3) the satisfaction of students to the Flipped Classroom as a learning management was at the high level in both separate and whole aspects.

It was found that 1) the students got higher learning outcomes in post-test than in pre-test entitled “Scientific Method” with the statistically significant at level .05, 2) the students could create a project based on their interest which then be evaluated their responsibility in learning according to criteria of 80 percent, and 3) the satisfaction of students to the Flipped Classroom as a learning management was at the high level in both separate and whole aspects.

“The Incident Replay” – A Proposed Ethics Learning Activity for Business Students

Alvin Y T Wong
Hong Kong Community College
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Edmund S S Chan
Hong Kong Baptist University

Ethics education is featured as one of the important elements of General Education. Wouters, van Nimwegen, van Oostendorp, and van der Spek (2013) mentioned that serious games are more effective than conventional instruction methods in terms of learning and retention. This paper aims to propose an ethics learning activity for business students in tertiary education.

This explorative study adopts qualitative method to investigate students’ perspectives for designing an ethics learning game for tertiary students. Semi-structured interview approach (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995) was adopted. The study consists of two stages of face-to-face individual interviews in which three tertiary students were purposefully invited to share their views from their personal perspectives on the proposed ethics game activity. The interview content and responses were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed by both interviewers with phenomenological perspective (Colaizzi, 1978).

To summarize, this study suggests several findings based on the pilot interviews conducted. First, there are evidences that support the use of the proposed key elements in the game such as scenarios settings, roletaking discussion, computer-generated outcome possibilities based on participants’ anonymous indication. Second, the proposed game is also effective in enhancing students’ considerations on stakeholders’ perspectives. Third, this pilot study also suggests that the proposed game activity can increase students’ interests in learning ethics.

Using Mathematical Modelling to Inform Design of General Education Courses: Creating Synergisms and Reducing Trade-offs

Mark A McGinley
Lingnan University

General education courses, and general education programs in general, are designed to meet a number of different, and sometimes competing goals. For example, class time allocated to learning content material may not be able to be used to simultaneously increase communication ability. How should educators decide the allocation of valuable resources such as classroom time, student effort, and other limited resources to maximize the effectiveness of General Education courses and programs? Although mathematical modelling has been an effective tool for informing research and practice in areas such as science, engineering, and economics, education theory has remained largely verbal. Here I will attempt to illustrate the utility of mathematical modelling by exploring how developing optimality models can guide education decisions. Two of the important intended learning outcomes of “Natural Disasters: Science and Society” course I teach as part of the Science, Technology, and Society Cluster at Lingnan University are (1) for students to apply the “scientific method” to answer questions and (2) for students to be able to explain and apply content knowledge related to earthquakes. The results of optimality models indicate that the “value” of a class can be maximized when learning associate with two different areas are positively synergistic and when resource allocation tradeoffs are reduced. I will discuss how I used this conclusion to develop class activities to attempt to maximize student attainment of course learning goals.

Connecting the Self, Community and the World through Literature in GE Curriculum

Ivan Stacy & Vicky Lee
College of International Education
Hong Kong Baptist University

Most designers of GE curricula in Hong Kong higher education shy away from including literature because L2 students (students whose first language is not English) are often perceived as benefiting more from “functional,” “communicative” and “practical” English language teaching. Studying literature is thus viewed as being of little relevance to the worlds of the students in the sub-degree sector. HKBU College of International Education (CIE) is the only provider in the sector that has the GE requirement of completing one literature course for all students. Two literature courses are offered at CIE, the objectives of which are to connect the dotted line of relationship between the self, community and the world through reading literature, with the secondary aim of enhancing their English language acquisition.

This study aims to demonstrate the ways in which the two literature GE courses offered at CIE, Literary Appreciation and Reading Contemporary Worlds, enable students to make connections between literature and society, and in doing so to think critically about the issues affecting themselves, Hong Kong, and the rest of the world in the twenty-first century. This paper will briefly describe the design of these two courses, indicating how they are structured in order to achieve these aims. At the same time, the paper will also look into students’ perceptions how studying literature as a GE course has encouraged and enabled students to think critically about their place in society and the world.

Understanding Culture; Understanding History: Chinese Music Appreciation as General Education Course in Tertiary Education

Martin Lee
Caritas Institute of Higher Education

As a music appreciation course, even though this is just under a general education programme, its implement at a tertiary institution would face several challenges if we want to achieve the learning outcomes and bring meaningful aspects to students as much as possible. The situation becomes more difficult when there is a lack of music resources as in many tertiary institutions in Hong Kong where they do not have formal music programmes or music departments as main users. Libraries and centres may not purchase and subscribe related references, databases, and other electronic resources for students’ studies and collection due to limited budget yearly.

Resources for teaching and learning materials of course are affected but these still can be easily sorted out by experienced and skillful instructors with the help of any online learning platform, e.g. Moodle. However, with respect to the assignments, students need extra resources to learn and study in details that normal lessons would not be able to cover, especially when they are doing some specific topics, which require certain references in the fields.

This paper, therefore, demonstrates a new approach to learn Chinese Music as an appreciation course in the general education programme, i.e. a course designed for non-music-major students. Under this circumstance, instructors should initiate their interests and discussions around the immediate peripherals— cultural aspects, social impacts, historical issues, and political considerations—instead of the music itself, which requires long-term training in music. Through this new pedagogical approach in assessment, students would be able to apply knowledge of other related disciplines and view Chinese music from various angles, know how music contributes to the understanding of others, and understand the aesthetics principles over time and space. In other words, both cultural and historical aspects of Chinese music would be known at the end of the course.

Best Practices in Giving Feedback across Curriculum: Implications for General Education Practitioners

Svetlana Chigaeva-Heddad & Chrissy Burns
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

With the current focus on general education subjects in Hong Kong’s tertiary sector, students are increasingly engaged in writing across the curriculum in various genres. This means that in addition to helping students develop critical awareness of both global and local issues not restricted to students’ disciplines, GE teachers need to integrate students’ development of effective communication skills into their curricula. This desired outcome entails a change in the teaching paradigm, in which feedback is an important component. Effective feedback should help student writers not only to address surface-level problems such as grammar and text organization but also to enhance their participation in the dynamic, cyclical process of knowledge making.

This presentation will address the issue of feedback practices in the context of writing across the curriculum. It will draw on the existing literature from various fields to identify the best practices advocated by practitioners around the world, including Hong Kong researchers. It will also rely on the extensive experience of PolyU’s English Writing Requirement Programme to exemplify which practices may help students evolve into more holistic and capable communicators and enable them to tackle professional and global issues from a multidisciplinary perspective. Sample feedback comments will be used for illustration and discussion purposes. Some of the questions that will be addressed are: How can feedback be effectively integrated into the design of a GE course curriculum? What other tools are needed to enhance the effectiveness of feedback? How can students with specific second language needs be supported as they transition from secondary school to academic practices?

Implementation of Wellness & Lifestyle Management General Education Elective in Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi) with Blended Approach: Mixture of Online and Face-to-face Delivery Format

Lee Lok Chun Janet
Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong
Vocational Training Council

Researches showed that physical education or wellness modules in higher education may be a good way to promote lifelong active lifestyle attitudes, knowledge and skills (Keating, 2005). Research from the western counterparts showed that wellness course in online delivery format provided good alternatives to students who are “time-bound” or “location-bound”.

In previous years, the Wellness & Lifestyle Management module offered in THEi was organized in faceto- face format in both lecture and tutorials sessions. However, record showed that students’ attendance dropped drastically at mid semester and by the end of semester when they had mid-terms and assignment submission. In the current academic year 2016/17, Wellness & Lifestyle Management elective in THEi attempted to organize the module in a blended approach. Among the 10 sessions of face-to-face lectures, 2 sessions would be delivered in online format at period that usually have low attendance due to peak assignment submission period.

A total of 41 students from different undergraduate programmes enrolled the Wellness & Lifestyle Management module in academic year 2016/17. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire on blended approach in this module by the end of semester, to know how they perceive the delivery format affect their learning.

The result of this study could provide preliminary support for the feasibility and effectiveness of this kind of delivery format. If such approach is well received by students, this kind of delivery format should be promoted. It will also provide insight to other general education modules. Students who study in selffinancing institutions with high financial burden and required to spend lots of hours in part-time job might be benefited from this approach of learning.

RE-EXAMINING “CREATION” – Using Art as a Powerful Narrative to Explore Life in General Education

LEUNG Yuet Mei Sharon
HKU SPACE Community College

While exploring life values is regarded as one of the most reasonable objectives for General Education, how values can be educated has become a key pedagogical question. By identifying a self-initiated life course with a journey of artistic creation, this paper discusses how art can act as a vehicle through which students of post-secondary education are able to investigate their life values positively and effectively. The discourse starts with a picture of challenges faced by the teaching and learning of General Education in the context of Hong Kong, which is followed by analyses of how art and life education can function and complement each other to enrich the GE curriculum from the perspective of their educational process, product and meaning. To proceed, the process and product of art are compared respectively to the action and the value giving nature of a person’s life. It is then zoomed in to look closer into ways which represent the meaning of life, typically in the form of symbols in artistic creation. The final section wraps up the comparison by echoing the positive learning outcome of moral (life) education with that of affective (art) education, that is, the nurturing of passion and motivation to learn in the name of meaning creation.

Non-credit-bearing Programme Design in General Education — Curriculum Design and Experience Sharing on CIHE Launching of Integrated Seminar and Community Involvement

John C T Chow, Anna H N Ng, Martin C K Lee, Stephanie L Liu, Hannah Y Liu, Kevin H K Lam, Bobby H C Chan, Billy Y H Chow
Caritas Institute of Higher Education

In Hong Kong, General Education is becoming an important feature of post-secondary education. All colleges/institutes/universities offer credit-bearing General Education courses as well as non-credit-bearing courses for their students. Non-credit-bearing Education serves as an advocate to credit-bearing General Education by providing the learning opportunities for students to explore wider experiences and cultivate their respective personalities. Through a discussion of CIHE’s experiences in designing and implementing the non-credit-bearing General Education course – Integrated Seminar and Community Involvement, this article shares with readers the Institute’s directional path. Embodying the Catholic spirit of “teaching with love and care” in the General Education, the Institute adopts non-credit-bearing General Education as an important characteristic of Caritas with the objective of providing a “whole-person” education, and in doing so offers a fresh alternative to the current General Education system.

The non-credit-bearing General Education course – Integrated Seminar and Community Involvement exemplifies the Institute’s enthusiastic response to the mission of holistic education in which students are going to become the long-term well-being of our society. Since non-credit-bearing General Education always encompasses a wide range of fields, the Institute has faced difficulties in curriculum design and implementation. On the curriculum design level, the paper will demonstrate how the mission of the Institute can be introduced into the academic outcomes of the course and how the outcomes can be achieved under the nature of non-credit-bearing structure. On the implementation level, the Institute has been trying to bring students to make contribution to both the course and the society, especially through community services. Under the spirit of “love and care” of Caritas, CIHE is conscientiously making efforts to bring the best of both worlds – academic achievements and personality growth for our students.

The Integration of Body-Mind-Spirit Holistic Care in the Teaching of a GE Course

Ng Hoi Nga
Caritas Institute of Higher Education

This paper presents a teaching method of a GE course and an evaluation of its effectiveness in the enhancement of body-mind-spirit development and positive self-regard. The course entitled ‘Individual and Society’ consists of three major components: (i) understanding of self; (ii) consciousness towards society, and (iii) interpersonal relationships. Basic psychological principles are introduced to help students understand the impact of internal and external factors on their thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Specific topics of the course include: Definition of culture, Understanding self in human relations, Personality and human relations, Hong Kong Chinese identity, Communication and relation in work. The mode of teaching encompasses lecture, class discussions, tutorial, debates, body-mind-spirit experiential games, group project presentation, and individual performance. Students are required to conduct a group project by (i) interviewing two youngsters and two elder adults on personal and social factors affecting their attitudes towards different significant life issues (viz., life, death, education, gender, love, sexuality, and religion); and (ii) presentation of results of data analysis of the interviews. In the final tutorial, each student is required to do a two-minute individual show performance on the theme ‘I love myself because…” At the end of the course, students are invited to fill in a questionnaire consisting five scales that measure holistic well-being. Participation is voluntary and anonymous. A total of 80 students (47.5% males) participate in the study. They are from different disciplines, including social work, human services, hotel management, corporate management, market and event management, business administration, accountancy, etc. Analysis of the data indicates significant positive changes in body-mind-spirit development as well as in positive selfregard. The results informed us that the integration of Body-Mind-Spirit training elements in the GE course is effective in facilitating students’ personal growth.


Ying Koon-kau
Caritas Institute of Higher Education

仍然有不少通識課程,以人文學科、自然科學、社會科學三大領域的區分為大前提,只以教授某一領域範圍內的知識為 目的,如以中國思想、西方藝術史、天文學入門、心理學與你等等為題的課程便是其中一些明顯的例子。相較之下,以 跨領域為題的通識課程,以溝通、比較、甚至銜接三大領域的課程卻仍然只屬少數,而筆者認為這種領域比較的課程才 是最能貫徹「通識」精神的。為甚麼這種領域比較的課程不多?除了因為有能力匯通人文與科學知識的老師和教材都數量 不多、牽涉內容太廣泛容易吃力不討好、學生往往望而卻步等理由之外,更基本者,乃是一個理論基礎的問題:我們如 何能以明晰的方法論立場,清楚說明人文學科、自然科學、社會科學三大領域的知識性質和關係?這實在是個不容易的問 題,卻又是通識教育不能迴避的問題:若三者都屬知識,其之為(真)知識的意義有何分別?又能否相容?還是只落得一 種各自為政的「後現代處境」?可以說,這是個哲學上的知識論問題(epistemological problem)。這個問題若得不到 妥善的處理,通識課程便有流於知識碎片化、只拼湊卻欠融通、學生只是囫圇吞棗的危險。本文以「整合哲學(Integral Philosophy)」的提出者Ken Wilber的理論為憑,借助其「全子」和「四大象限」的概念,嘗試提出一種能匯通人文與 科學知識的方法論立場,並說明這種立場的合理性所在。

Curriculum Design of General Education – Application of Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory

Lucy S P Kong
College of International Education
Hong Kong Baptist University

According to Howard Gardner (1993), standard tests for measuring intelligence should focus not only on linguistic and logical-mathematical skills because there is a wide array of human potential and talents that significantly contribute to our intellectual and cultural life. The theory of Multiple Intelligence (MI) posits that students possess eight intelligences, and once students are given chances to pick up their intelligences through pluralistic teaching and apply them in practical ways, they successfully achieve learning outcomes such as the development of critical-thinking, communication and problem-solving skills. They may even be able to apply the course content they learn to real-life situations and create important knowledge. Students can develop positive attitudes towards learning with the proper guidance. The role of teachers is to give students opportunities to learn and develop their full potential. This paper aims to examine the two educational implications of MI theory – individuation and pluralisation – that provide qualitative descriptions of students’ multiple intelligences and vocabulary, and suggest how teachers translate the eight intelligences to curriculum design and teaching strategies in the context of community college in Hong Kong. As for assessment method, the MI concept of ecological validity will be explored. It could provide teachers with ideas of designing guidelines for group projects and students will be given more opportunities to use their intelligences, demonstrate their mastery of knowledge and apply generic skills to real-life situations.


Au Chi Kin
Hong Kong Shue Yan University

今天香港政府資助及私人籌辦高等院校已開辦四年制學士學位課程,不少高等院校多在三年級下學期或四年級下學期, 為學生開辦「服務學習」(Service learning)科目,此科教學模式設計主要採用「社區服務為本課程」( Communitybased Instruction Program ),而香港樹仁大學歷史系通識文憑課程(Certificate in the Liberal Studies)也設「服 務學習」科,既安排修讀學生,往商業機構、中學、志願服務機構、進行「服務學習」,又結合「公眾史學」(Public History)的教學方法,教導學生,進行訪問、編輯及蒐集資料的學習模式。筆者開辦此課程已近四年,經每學期評估 後,得知修讀「服務學習」科目的學生,口語表達及書寫能力,應酬社交能力,網羅資料能力,表現甚佳。同時,也感到 學生完成「服務學習」科目後,獲益良多。而且,學生、高等院校及提供學習機會的機構也受惠,總結過去學與教的成 果,得到以下啟示:其一,學生方面:使學生可以在未就業前,了解商業發展、現實社會運作情況、待人接物應守禮儀, 優化學生解決困難( problem-based learning )能力,更可以協助部份學生了解自己性格與行業的配合情況,了解自己工 作能力限制和有待改善的地方;其二,高等院校方面:加強高等院校與社會聯繫,增加高等院校在社會知名度及承擔社會 責任,更有利校方動員社會資源,發揮了教育直接參與日常生活(education that occurs as a direct participation in the events of everyday life)的成效;其三,提供「服務學習」的機構,特別為志願機構提供一批青年人協助處理機構 的事務,另一方面商業機構也藉此了解現時青年人的工作態度及所思所想,可以作為未來聘請人才的參考。更重要的啟 示,為負責執行此計劃的教員,要有責任感,肯承擔及付出,教員一經承諾為學生推動「服務學習」的科目時,往往於暑 假及上課期間的假日,也運用私人時間,與機構及學生接觸,並定期往提供「服務學習」的機構,進行探訪。是次研究以 香港樹仁大學通識文憑課程開辦「服務學習」科目為例,說明籌辦是次科目的準備工作,學生應有的態度及準備,領導及 任教此科教員的角色及責任,校外夥伴機構的角色及責任,院校與夥伴機構合作對學生成績評估,推行「社區服務為本課 程」( Community-based Instruction Program )的困難、怎樣提供評分標準及其解決方法。

職業訓練定位的中文教育 — 以談判溝通及文學欣賞為例

Yi Yingying & Dr Chau Manlut
Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong
Vocational Training Council

香港政府近年來持續強調職業教育,其中語文能力不可或缺,而香港學生的語文能力相對薄弱。關於香港地區職業教育框 架下中文課程的研究較少。職業訓練局轄下的香港高等教育科技學院自2012年起開辦學位課程,並成立語文及通識教育 學院,為學生提供通識教育課程,旨在提升學生的中英文溝通表達能力,培養學生自我反省、批判思考的能力。本研究將 以香港高等教育科技學院的通識教育核心單元(中文二)的兩項教學內容 —— 談判溝通及文學欣賞為例,從課程設計、 教材組織、評估安排三方面,探討大專中文課程如何設計與實施,以及達致怎樣的效果。本文將揭示本港地區職業訓練視 野下中文課程的設計及實施狀況,對之後的大專中文課程設計與實施具有啟發意義,並豐富此領域的相關討論。

Fostering Global Citizenship through Sustainable Development Goals: A 3-credit Curriculum in General Education for the Sub-degree/Degree Sector

Stephanie Lee
School of Professional Education and Executive Development
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

UN Agenda 2030 which espouses the economic, societal and environment components of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and sets targets and indicators for nations to implement provide the basis for institutions to design and development a curriculum with a view to fostering global citizenship amongst young people under the title “Fostering Global Citizenship” (FGC). This paper designs and develops a 3-credit FGC course to contribute to the general education curriculum according to the philosophy, principles and strategy of the UN in its unfailing efforts to implement Agenda 2030, efforts of which many nations have diligently followed. The aim of this paper is to leverage the promulgation of the SDGs by the UN in 2030 to foster critical thinking amongst students pertaining to how global citizenship can be nurtured through the SDGs which came into being in 2015 and which is being advocated by nations until 2030. The content of the course comprises 4 parts: (i) positioning the importance of environmental, societal and economic factors in implementing the 17 SDGs, (ii) relevancy of the 17 SDGs to both developing and developed nations, (iii) nations’ responses to UN Agenda 2030, and (iv) strategy to foster global citizenship amongst young people which demonstrates that students are capable of contributing to Agenda 2030. In (i) a rich data bank has been established to correlate the SDGs with the three factors. In (ii) the different needs of nations have been well studied. In (iii), pragmatic considerations and difficulties have been identified. In (iv) research has been undertaken to support the argument that it is possible to foster global citizenship amongst young people through curriculum development. At the same time, students are required to demonstrate that the local environment is relevant to the implementation of SDGs. The paper will present the FGC curriculum by following standard practice adopted by institutions.

A General Education Programme for the 21st Century

Chan Kit Sze Amy
Hong Kong Shue Yan University

The General Education Programme of Hong Kong Shue Yan University has undergone a major revamp in December 2016. In the old model, the GE Programme had a loose structure and comprised selected elective courses from different departments. HKSYU, in 2016, seriously considered to establish a structured and coherent General Education Programme that reflects what is distinctive about SYU: its ethos, culture, values, social responsibility, and graduate attributes. As the person who wrote up the proposal of this GE programme, I will share the vision and aspiration of the design of this GE programme as well as its structure.

Experiential and Reflective Learning in the Course Design of Art, Self-exploration and Spirituality

Zhou Dehui Ruth
Hong Kong Shue Yan University

General Education (GE) is an important educational component at universities in Hong Kong. Most GE courses encourage students to connect themselves to their cultural heritage, develop their critical and analytical skills, promote their moral and ethical standards, and extend their horizon to world technology, languages, cultures and humanities. In a speech about the purpose of general education at South China Normal University, Sean D. Kelly (2010) pointed out that it was crucial for GE courses to help students to experience their own life as meaningful and worthwhile. This report is going to share how a GE course entitled as Art, Self-exploration and Spirituality is designed to help students to explore meanings of key life themes through experiential and reflective learning in art appreciation and making expressive artwork. This course covers selected concepts in art psychology, aesthetics, and spirituality. The teaching and learning activities involve six lectures, six workshops and one gallery visit. The lectures are designed to equip students with introductory knowledge about art psychology and spirituality. In the six workshops, students are facilitated with expressive art and focusing techniques to go through self-exploration and self-growth process in contemplating important life themes, such as stress, love, joy, life, hope and self through creating their own art work. A gallery visit will provide students another opportunity of experiential and reflective learning, in which they are encouraged to see, to hear, to feel and to understand humanity and spirituality in art appreciation.

Student Preferences and Expectations: Some Practical Tips for Designers of English Enhancement Programmes

Marine Yeung
Tung Wah College

As one of the essential skills for success in work and studies, English communication is often made a key component in the GE curriculum of tertiary study programmes. In addition to the provision of required English proficiency courses, many tertiary institutions have established English centres of some description to promote English learning on campus. Yet from students’ perspective, what kinds of programmes and activities should be offered, and how they feel about these initiatives are not very widely discussed in the existing literature.

This paper aims to address these questions with practical experiences gained from a project to establish an English language enhancement centre by one self-financing tertiary institution in Hong Kong. Funded by the Quality Enhancement Support Scheme (QESS), the centre, titled the Centre for Academic and Professional Language Enhancement (CAPLE), was set up in March 2016. Cognizant of the benefits of life-wide learning, independent learning and collaborative peer learning, CAPLE offers online self-learning resources, workshops in English for Specific Purposes (ESP), and the Peer Language Mentorship Programme, along with other

Centre usage figures and user feedback were continuously collected for evaluative purposes. Student feedback was mainly collected through student diaries, online surveys and self-reflections on some of the activities, and the usages of the online programmes and other resources were also constantly monitored. Interim findings derived from the data showed that these students’ preferences for English learning activities may not coincide with the programme’s general objectives, and the variation in the popularity of different types of workshops/activities suggests there is a need for programme designers to have a more realistic view about students’ English learning needs and motives and adjust their approaches and expectations accordingly in order to economize the use of resources.

Initial Validation of a Measurement Scale Assessing Chinese Business Students’ Orientation Towards Corporate Social Responsibility in Hong Kong

Wong Po May Daphne
Hong Kong Community College
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Most business programmes offered by the local universities have a corporate social responsibility (CSR) component; some in the form of a discipline specific course, others as a General Education (GE) course. In fact the development of students’ social ethicality is often found as a key learning outcome of GE (Association of American Colleges & Universities, n.d.; Wells, 2016) that concurs well with the nature of CSR; thus making CSR a valid GE topic. In order to assess the effectiveness of GE endeavours in developing students’ CSR orientation (CSRO), a reliable and valid measurement scale that can evaluate one’s CSRO is needed. Aupperle (1982) designed a forced-choice measurement scale (E-CSRO) in English to assess individual’s CSRO based on the underlying dimensions of Economic, Legal, Ethical and Discretionary as suggested by Carroll (1979,1991). This study translated E-CSRO into Chinese (C-CSRO) and initially tested it with N=793 Chinese sub-degree business students. High items reliabilities were attained; Exploratory Factor Analysis supported clear factor loading that corresponded with Carroll’s (1979) CSRO constructs; Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated reasonably good model fit of C-CSRO. Overall results confirm that C-CSRO’s psychometric properties and validity were convergent to those of E-CSRO when applied to a Chinese student sample. C-CSRO can facilitate study of CSRO in Chinese community where English is not the first language and further enable cross-cultural comparison in this area.

Pivot Run of Student Feedback on Measuring Effective Communication and Ethical Citizenship in Student Development Activities

Lau Yui Yip Joesph & So Chi Ho Joseph
Hong Kong Community College
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

In the context of higher education, sub-degree education has undergone fundamental transformation and tremendous growth over the past decade. Institutional Learning Outcome (ILO) creates an innovative educational learning model which creates sub-degree student learning outcomes at the heart of the assessment, curriculum and pedagogy in the 21st century. ILO creates a typical example of how sub-degree education institutions develop learner-centric education. Effective communication and ethical citizenship are two of the key ILOs. In the study, we will find out the key research questions on how the sub-degree student perceive on how the enhancement on their effective communication after student development activities? Furthermore, does the activities also principally furnish the sub-degree students in their sense of ethical citizenship? To fill the research gap, we will analyze sub-degree students’ evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the two ILOs through a questionnaire survey. Managerial and academic implications of the study are also provided.

Experiences in Implementing Electronic Questionnaire on Student Learning Activities

So Chi Ho Joseph
Hong Kong Community College
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Student feedback is important as one measure, among many, used to enhance and provide evidence-based information that assists in the improvement for continued success and planning for the future. Student Activities Questionnaire (SAQ) is one of the formal channels at CPCE Student Affairs Office (CPCE CSAO) to collect first hand personal feedback from participants on the effectiveness of learning experience through the activities. It helps CSAO to keep providing quality student services and developmental activities in various themes for students’ whole-person development. Respondents were asked to express their opinions on the statements in 5-point scales and optionally write down comments or suggestions. In 2015/16, the paperbased SAQ has gradually changed to an online SAQ (eSAQ) system. A full implementation of eSAQ was conducted in 2016/17. Our study aims to investigate any significant changes in terms of response rate and amount of written comments using paper-based SAQ and eSAQ. The results showed that 2015/16 paperbased SAQ had a significant better response rate than both years’ eSAQ. When comparing both years’ eSAQ, the response rate had a positive improvement from 2015/16 to 2016/17. In the written comment parts of eSAQ, the ratio of written comments per respondent also increased significantly in 2016/17. Moreover, the ratio of the word count of the written comments words per respondent also rose substantially. Respondents were more willing to answer the open-end questions using eSAQ. The advantages of using eSAQ can be found in some activities not suitable for paper-based. In addition, eSAQ promoted environment protection and enhanced efficient administrative work. Some measurements were suggested to improve eSAQ response rate such as using QR code and email reminder.

General Education Conference 2017:
Evolution and Transformation
on 15 & 16 June 2017